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Wikipsum wishful wizards want wands Jay Miller is an American anthropologist who is known for his wide-ranging fieldwork with and scholarship about different Native American groups, especially the Delaware (Lenape), Tsimshian, and Lushootseed Salish. He is himself of Lenape ancestry. He grew up in upstate New York, where he was given a Mohawk (Iroquois) name. As an undergraduate, he was influenced by the anthropologist Florence Hawley Ellis.

He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University, for a dissertation on the Keresan Pueblo people. While in New Jersey, he began working with speakers of the Delaware language. In this context he was adopted and named in the Delaware Wolf clan, his clan mother being Nora Dean, with whom he collaborated on a publication on the Delaware "Big House" rite.

Friendship with the anthropologist Viola Garfield while living in Seattle led to fieldwork among the Tsimshian at Hartley Bay, British Columbia, where Miller was adopted into the Gispwudwada (Killerwhale clan). He was formerly Associate Director of the D'Arcy McNickle Center for American Indian History at the Newberry Library in Chicago. He has also done fieldwork with the Salish people at the Colville Indian Reservation in Washington State and received names among the Creek and Tewa tribes.

The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد ٱلْـحَـرَام‎, translit. al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque", "the Holy Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque"[5][6]:471) or "Grand Mosque of Makkah",[7] is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah, that is the Ka‘bah in the Hejazi[8] city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Haram Mosque rivals the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrea city of Massawa[14] and Quba Mosque in Medina as the first stated mosque.[15] The Quran [16] states that Abraham, together with his son Ishmael, raised the foundations of a house that is identified by most commentators as the Kaaba. God had shown Abraham the exact site, very near to the Well of Zamzam, where Abraham and Ishmael began work on the Kaaba's construction in circa 2130 BCE.

After placing the Black Stone in the Eastern corner of the Kaaba, Abraham received a revelation, in which God told the aged prophet that he should now go and proclaim the pilgrimage to mankind, so that men may come both from Arabia and from lands far away, on camel and on foot.[17] Upon Muhammad's victorious return to Mecca in 630 CE, he and his son-in-law, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, broke the idols in and around the Kaaba, similar to what, according to the Quran, Abraham did in his homeland.

The first major renovation to the mosque took place in 692 on the orders of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.[26] Before this renovation, which included the mosque's outer walls being raised and decoration added to the ceiling, the mosque was a small open area with the Kaaba at the center. By the end of the 8th century, the mosque's old wooden columns had been replaced with marble columns and the wings of the prayer hall had been extended on both sides along with the addition of a minaret on the orders of Al-Walid I.

In 1570, Sultan Selim II commissioned the chief architect Mimar Sinan to renovate the mosque. This renovation resulted in the replacement of the flat roof with domes decorated with calligraphy internally, and the placement of new support columns which are acknowledged as the earliest architectural features of the present mosque. These features are the oldest surviving parts of the building.

During heavy rains and flash floods in 1621 and 1629, the walls of the Kaaba and the mosque suffered extensive damage.[29] In 1629, during the reign of Sultan Murad IV, the mosque was renovated. In the renovation of the mosque, a new stone arcade was added, three more minarets (bringing the total to seven) were built, and the marble flooring was retiled.

The first major renovation under the Saudi kings was done between 1955 and 1973. In this renovation, four more minarets were added, the ceiling was refurnished, and the floor was replaced with artificial stone and marble. The Mas'a gallery (As-Safa and Al-Marwah) is included in the Mosque, via roofing and enclosures. During this renovation many of the historical features built by the Ottomans, particularly the support columns, were demolished.